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Flow Description - The feed water passes through a replaceable 5-micron cartridge
pre-filter which removes bulk suspended solids. Filtered water then flows to the inlet con-
trol valve. This solenoid-controlled diaphragm valve is wired to the ON/OFF switch and
opens when the machine is turned ON, allowing water to flow to the pump inlet. When
the machine is turned off, the valve closes, preventing non-turbulent flow through the
membrane elements, which would lead to shortened membrane element life.
The pump feeds water to the membrane element housings arranged in parallel and serial
combinations. The direction of water flow is indicated by an arrow on each membrane ele-
ment housing. Water is separated by the membrane elements within the membranes and
leaves the membrane element housings in two streams: permeate and concentrate.
Permeate from each membrane element housing is collected in a common manifold. The
permeate then flows through a flow meter and to the outlet point of the machine.
The concentrate leaves the last membrane element housing and flows to the flow control
center (recycle/concentrate manifold). At this point, the recycle valve channels a prede-
termined amount of concentrate into the pump inlet. Recycle increases recovery while
maintaining adequate cross flow through the membrane elements. The other two ports of
the flow control center lead to the concentrate valve and final pressure gauge. The con-
centrate valve has three functions: It controls the amount of concentrate flowing to the
drain; it controls the pressure within the machine; and it helps control the system recov-
ery. An Autoflush solenoid is added to the flow control center with an additional tee. The
concentrate then flows through a flow meter and to the outlet point of the machine.
1.2 Machine Nomenclature
GE Osmonics E-Series water purification machines are numbered in such a way as to indi-
cate the permeate flow and quality you can expect from the machine.
Given the system case in Figure 1.4 (Principles of Operation):
Average Concentration (C
) = (Cf) 100 mg/L + (Cc) 146.9 mg/L
) = 123.5 mg/L TDS
Rejection = (Cavg) 123.5 - (Cp) 6.2 x 100 = 95%
Passage = (Cp) = 6.2 x 100 = 5.0%
) = 123.5
Recovery = (Qp) 2 gpm x 100 = 33%
) 6 gpm